The Interest Rate Swap Agreements

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Credit and financing risks persist for secured transactions, but to a lesser extent. Regardless of the rules established in the Basel III regulatory framework, trade in interest rate derivatives has a use of capital. The consequence is that interest rate swaps require more use of capital depending on your specific nature, which may differ from market movements. Capital risk is therefore another concern of users. Now, let`s assume that interest rates are going up, with the LIBOR rate rising to 5.25% at the end of the first year of the interest rate swap contract. Let us also assume that the swap agreement stipulates that interest payments are made each year (so it is time for each company to receive its interest payment) and that the variable interest rate for Company B is calculated with the LIBOR rate applicable to the interest payment due date. Once the parties have decided to enter into an exchange rate swap agreement, they must decide on what basis interest rates should be based. They settle for a “fictitious” principal amount. “Notional” means that the amount itself is not part of the deal: it is simply used to indicate the amount on which interest is calculated. Interest rate swaps are an effective type of derivatives that can be useful in different ways to both parties involved in their use.

However, swap agreements are also linked to risks. Since the loan is not affected by the swap, abc continues to pay its lender the fixed rate payment of $50,000 (1,000,000 x 5%). XYZ currently pays its lender the variable interest payment of $30,000 ($1,000,000 x (1% – 2%). The loans of the two companies have not been changed under any circumstances. Note that while both parties get what they want from an interest rate swap – one party receives protection against the risk of a fixed interest rate, while the other receives the risk of a potential gain from a variable rate – one party will eventually reap a financial reward, while the other will suffer a financial loss. If interest increases over the life of the swap contract, the party receiving the variable interest rate and the party receiving the fixed interest rate receive a loss. Conversely, if interest rates fall, the party that receives the guaranteed fixed rate return will benefit, while the party receiving payments on the basis of a variable interest rate will see the amount of interest payments it receives decrease. Interest rate swap contracts are contracts between counterparties who wish to exchange interest rates on a debt or investment. For counterparties that, for example, exchange interest rates for a loan, they accept that the value of their swaps will be the same.

If abC pays more as a result of the swap, the XYZ counterparty will pay the difference to the ABC counterparty. These payments are made according to the schedule set by the contract. Unsecured interest rate swaps, which are implemented bilaterally without a CSA, expose trading partners to financing and credit risks. Financing risk, because the value of the swap could become so negative that it is prohibitive and cannot be financed. credit risks, because the counterparty concerned, for which the value of the swap is positive, will be concerned about the adverse counterparty`s non-compliance with its obligations. On the other hand, guaranteed interest rate swaps expose users to collateral risks: under CSA conditions, the type of collateral issued that is allowed could become more or less expensive due to other movements in the foreign market.